Ryazan is a city in central European Russia, and is capital of Ryazan' Oblast. Ryazan is located on the Oka River. The city is an industrial and transportation center. Manufacturers include agricultural machinery, chemicals, and clothing. Ryazan was originally founded in the 11th century, downstream from its present site. It was completely destroyed by the Tatars in 1237, and was then moved to the city of Pereyaslav-Ryazanskiy. In the 15th century the community became the capital of a principality. It passed to Moscow in 1521 and was given its present name in 1778. Ryazan's population in 1999 was 528,800.
The Ryazan area is the home to several famous Russians. Poet Sergei Esenin was born in nearby Konstantinovo and lived there most of his life. One can still visit his home.
World-renown scientist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born in Ryazan and did his famous research with dogs and bells there as well. One can visit his birthplace as well as his laboratory. There is a guided tour through the lab as well.