History in Russia

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The Russian Federation was established in late 1991, when the former Soviet Union (USSR) disintegrated and all the 15 Soviet republics became independent countries.

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was formed immediately afterwards to foster economic co-operation among the former Soviet Republics except the Baltic States.

The Russian Federation then became a member of the CIS. However, the differences in political and economic conditions have prevented the CIS from implementing common economic policies or creating a free trade area, and Russia has its own systems.

The Russian Federation extends from the Baltic States and Ukraine to the Ural Mountains, while the Asian part covers Siberia to the Russian Far East bordering the Pacific Ocean.

The country is divided into republics (formed on the basis of ethnic lines), territories and administrative regions (on geographical or industrial basis, with some being autonomous regions), as well as two municipalities, Moscow and St Petersburg, directly under the central government.


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