Tirgu mures Travel Guide

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Tg-Mures - a Romanian city known as Marosvásárhely in Hungarian, is situated in the heart of Transylvania in picturesque surroundings. The river Mures flows through the city and its surrounding hills are covered in ash and oak forests.

Romanians and Hungarians both make up the population of some 160,000 inhabitants. It is the cultural and industrial centre of the region and also this judicial and administrative seat.

Documents show that the history of the city goes back more than six centuries. Traces of commercial activity carried out by the Romans have been found outside the city, at Cristesti.

Although its architecture does not reflect that of a typical medieval town, it has many fine old buildings of interest. The oldest building is the Protestant church which was built in the 15th century by voivode Hunyadi János (Iancu de Hunedoara), who was also known for his participation in the Last Crusade. The church has the characteristic features of the Gothic style and is situated in the town's fortress. The fortress itself, with its towers and brick walls, is the only one of its kind to have remained intact.

The cultural history of the town boasts of many important personalities. Today the cultural activity is reflected in both the Romanian and Hungarian theatre performed at the National Theatre , the Philharmonic Orchestra, the History Museum, (which includes a Natural Science section), the public libraries and art galleries. Among its academic institutions there are the three universities: "Petru Maior" University, the University of Medicine and Pharmacy and the Academy of Dramatic Art. There is also a Social and Humanities Research Institute within the Romanian Academy.

The town is well served by communications and can be reached by road, rail and air. The airport caters for both national and international flights.

The architecture of Tg-Mures

The fortress church is one of the oldest buildings in the city. The fortress is a wall with 7 bastions and was built by the town's craftsmen. Within the fortress there is the Reformed Church which was built in 1492 in the Gothic style. There are also some old buildings from the 16th - 18th centuries; among them the Teleki Library and the Royal Table should be mentioned.

During the last three - four centuries, many churches were built in the town. The architectural style used to built these churches in the cities and villages of Transylvania reflect the variety of Christian beliefs: Roman Catholic,Evangelist, Protestant, Orthodox, Greek -Catholic. The Jewish religion was also celebrated in the local synagogue.

The wooden church where orthodox believers worship, is situated in an uphill cemetery of the town and is a significant monument. It was erected in 1793 and painted in 1814, being unique in Transylvanian urbane scenery.

Present-day Tg. Mures owes much to some of its mayors, like Tamás Borsos, György Bernády and Emil Dandea. During Bernády's time, at the beginning of the 20th century, beautiful buildings were built: the present-day Prefecture, The Hall of Culture, The University of Medicine, Petru Maior University and many others public buildings. The Electrical, gas and drainage systems were introduced and the streets were paved. This process of modernisation continued between the two World Wars by Mayor Emil Dandea. Thanks to him, the two cathedrals (Orthodox and Greek - Catholic) and the present-day City Hall were built. The ancient provincial city has developed into a modern city.

The Hall of Culture hovses a famous Hall of Mirrors. Its stained glass windows, showing scenes from the Székelyes' ballads, are considered as reflecting local culture.

Personalities, culture and science

The Teleki Library is undoubtedly an example of priceless cultural heritage . It was founded in 1802 by count Sámuel Teleki, chancellor of Transylvania. He was not only a rich man, but also a well - educated man, who attended several European Universities. He used a great deal of his fortune on buying more than 40,000 books, which he used to set up a Public Library, which is named after him. Most of the books are ancient and rare and include scientific papers and manuscripts.

Among those who also lived and worked in Tg. Mures, are: György Aranka, who founded the Society of Language and Culture in 1793. (Erdélyi Magyar Nyelvmivelõ Társaság), Petru Maior, an outstanding personality of Enlightenment in Central Europe, Alexandru Papiu Ilarian, the author of the Romanians' History in High Dacia and Avram Iancu, leader of the 1848 Revolution in Transylvania.

If reference to schools is made, the Protestant College, today's Bolyai Farkas high school, which was set up in 1557, is the oldest. This secondary school was a University College between 1714 and 1889.

Two mathematicians, Farkas and János Bolyai (father and son) figure highly in the world of science. Farkas Bolyai (1775 - 1856) was a teacher of Mathematics at the local Protestant College from 1802 till his death. He is also the author of "Tentamen", which had been first printed in the school's own press. The appendix of this work was done by János Bolyai (1802 - 1860) who also, together with Lobacevsky and Gauss, was the first to develop the principles of non -Euclidean geometry.

Petru Maior University of Tg -Mures is housed in a beautiful building which was built in 1906. It began as a Commercial High School and Girls' High School, but changed to university status in 1960 when the institute of Pedagogy was established.

Contributors

April 26, 2005 change by giorgio

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