History in Hiiumaa

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Hiiumaa Tahkuna

Hiiumaa Tahkuna

Mart Mõniste 2006

Short Owerview of Hiiumaa-s History

      Hiiumaa is an island with a long and intersting history that will gradually become known to those interested. The former coastal slopes where about 7500 years ago the first fishermen and sealers landed have grown into a forest.

The trees also cover ancient fields and village sites. Only the wisdom of a searcher or luck of accidental finder will help to specify the knowledge about the Middle Ages.

Each year brings a new surprise, be it a stone with a concavity, a tool or a coin - it all tells us something about the peole and their doings on this little island.

The archive documents of course tell the most exact story. Lets leaf them through together!


1228 - Hiiumaa is first mentioned in written documents as an empty (?) island by the name of Dageida 1254 - Hiiumaa is divided between the bishopric of Ösel-Wiek and the Teutonic Order. First place names are mentioned (Soela Strait, Orjaku, Sarwo, Reigi and Pihla Island ...) appr. 1255 - Beginning of construction of Pühalepa stone church 1300

? - Permanent Swedish settlement, originating from the Finnish and Swedish coastal regions, is formed 1400

? - Antecendent beginning of the construction of Välipäe fortified estate
1470s - High altar that was dedicated to Saint Anna of Pühalepa Church approaches completion 1490s - Hanseatic League applies repeatedly for the permission to build the seamark to Hiiumaa 1500

1500 - Käina stone church approaches completion 1504-1505 - Beginning of the construction of Kõpu seamark 1524 - Sören Norby robs ships near Kõrgessaare 1531 - Kõpu seamark is almost ready 1559-1563 - Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, including part of Hiiumaa, belongs to Magnus, Duke of Denmark 1563 - Beginning of the Swedish reign in Hiiumaa 1564 - Many villages, including Kärdla, are mentioned for the first time 1582-1594 - Salthouse is operating in Reigi 1600

1603 - Hunger, plague 1612 - The great Danish invasion to Hiiumaa 1624 - J. De la Gardie (1582-1640) acquires greater part of the island by purchase 1627 - Reigi church becomes independent, and so the separate Reigi parish is formed 1628-1664 - First Estonian glass factory starts operating in Hüti village in Hiiumaa 1678 - Revolt of the Hiiumaa Swedes 1679 - Dutch E Jacobson Bloedysel establishes a shipyard at the Port of Suursadam 1682 - A food box is made in Hiiumaa which, to date, is the oldest wooden object with a dated family mark in Estonia 1700

1710 - Hiiumaa becomes essentially part of the Russian Empire, peace treaty in 1721 1716-1720 - The island belongs to the Russian Admiralty 1755 - E. M. Stenbock restores his land rights in Hiiumaa; beginning of the construction of Suuremõisa Manor House 1758 - The Stackelbergs settle down in Kassari 1779-1782 - Emmaste estate (now a schoolhouse) is completed 1781 - Swedes from Reigi are forced to move to the new living place in Southern Ukraine 1781 - O. R. L. Von Ungern-Sternberg buys the estates of Nothern Hiiumaa and settles down there 1793 - Hat factory starts operating in Reigi parsonage 1796 - The Ungern-Sternbergs expropriate the Suuremõisa estate, and so they govern larger part of Hiiumaa 1800

1802 - Reigi stone church approaches completion 1803-1804 - O. R. L. Von Ungern-Sternberg is found quilty for killing captain Malm and is sent to Siberia 1819 - The main building of Putkaste estate approaches completion; this estate has been mentioned by the name of Saulepa already in 1524 1829 - The Ungern-Sternberg or the Hiiu-Kärdla cloth fabric starts operating 1848 - Sailing ship Hioma, the first Estonian ship to cross the equator, is constructed in Suursadam 1851 - K.-E. Von Bear visits Hiiumaa 1863 - Jojann Köler lives in Vaemla estate where he completes about a dozen paintings of Hiiumaa 1863 - New stone church is consecrated in Kärdla 1866 - Emmaste parish is formed: one year later the new stone church approaches completion 1867 - The 1st Hiiumaa Song festival is held in Leigri-Murru 1873 - Rudolf  Tobias, one of the founders of serious music in Estonia, is born in Käina parish clerk  house 1874-75 - Construction works of Ristna and Tahkuna lighthouses 1884 - Baptism is spreading around Hiiumaa 1890s - Three orthodox churches approached completion 1900

1905 - World politician Ernst Jaakson descending of native Hiiu people is born in Riga 1908 - Mänspe village gets a new church 1911 - First Estonian artificial silk factory is built to Kõrgessaare (Viscosa Ltd); sample production in 1914 1913 - Electricity in Hiiumaa; cinema arrives to Kärdla 1917-1918 - Germany occupation 1918 - Hiiumaa becomes part of the Independent Estonian Republic 1924 - First bus line starts work in Hiiumaa 1926 - First Hiiumaa Song Day 1938 - Kärdla received city rights 1939 - Beginning of the construction of soviet military bases 1940 - Estonia, including Hiiumaa, is occupied by military bases 1941 - First deportation to Siberia, World War II reaches to the island; cloth fabric is burnt down; beginning of the German occupation 1944 - Soviet armed forces occupy the island again 1948 - Fist collective farm is formed 1949 - First edition of the local newspaper Soviet Hiiumaa is published. Second deportation to Siberia 1950 - Hiiumaa becomes a separate region 1952 - Fish factory sarts operating in Kõrgessaare 1961 - First shipment of canned fish produced in Kõrgessaare 1971 - Cafeteria Rannapaargu is opened 1971 - A famous Hiiumaa wolf is caught, it is still preserved in exposition house of the Hiiumaa Museum in Kassari 1989 - Beginning of the restoration in Kõpu Lighthouse 1990 - First World Festival of People of Hiiumaa 1991 - Restoration of Independence in Estonia 1993 - Last Soviet army units leave the island 2000

2003 - First indoor swimming pool in Hiiumaa is opened in Käina ...
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