Sukkur covers an area of 5,165 square kilometres. Geographically it is spanned from 27°05' to 28°02' north latitudes and from 68°47' to 69°43' east longitudes. The city of Sukkur is located at an altitude of 220 feet (67 m) from sea level, having terrestrial coordinates 68°52' east and 27°42' north. It is also the narrowest point of the lower Indus course .
Sukkur district shares northern border with Shikarpur and (recently constituted) Kashmore districts. Ghotki is located on the north-eastern side while Khairpur on the south. Sukkur also shares its border with India (Jaisalmir, Rajasthan ). Sukkur is also connected by road air with all major cities of Pakistan.
The climate of the Sukkur is characterized by hot and hazy weather during summer days while dry and cold in winter. During January, temperature ranges from 7 to 22 °C (44 to 71 °F). The summer (month of June before monsoon) temperature averages 35 °C (95 °F) though it often reaches up to 52°C (107 °F). Generally the summer season commences in March - April and ends before October. The average rainfall of the district is 88 mm, (ranges from 0.59 mm to 25.62 mm) per annum.
Sukkur has been an important strategic centre and trading route from time immemorial. Alor (present Aror , Sukkur) held the status of capital under the reign of Musikanos , when Alexander invaded India in 326 BCE. The ruins of this ancient town still exist, 8 km east of Rohri , in Sukkur district. In 711 CE, Arab invaded Sindh , led by 17 years old Muhammad Bin Qasim , and Sukkur (including whole Sindh and lower Punjab) became part of Umayyad Caliphate . Later Mughals and many semi-autonomous tribes ruled over Sukkur. The city was ceded to Mirs of Khairpur between 1809 and 1824. In 1833, Shah Shuja (a warlord of Kandahar , Afghanistan ) defeated the Talpurs near Sukkur and later made a solemn treaty with the Talpur ruler, by which he relinquished all claims on Sindh. In 1843, the British (General Charles James Napier ) defeated the Talpurs at the battle of Miani and Dubbo near Hyderabad and ruled the Sukkur (including Sindh) until independence of Pakistan . The (current) district of Sukkur was constituted in 1901 out of part of Shikarpur District , the remainder of which was formed into the Larkana District . Sukkur saw a significant socio-economic uplift after 1930s, when British Raj built the world largest barrage here on Indus River . After independence of Pakistan, thousands of Muslim immigrants arrived in Sukkur while a much larger number of Hindus left for India.
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