History in Rahim Yar Khan

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When Alexander gained victory over Multan. he appointed General Phillipos to rule Multan and Uch and advanced himself towards Alor. The country remained under Phillipos, who \vas afterwards driven out by Poros after the death of Alexander. This part of the country is also said to have been a part of the Buddhist empire ofAshoka. Authenticated history of the district begins by about 493 A.D. when Raja Divaji of Rai dynasty came to the throne. In the Rai dynasty dominions were vast, extending from Kashmir and Kanauj to Kandhar and Seistan and on the west to Mekran and a part of Debal. while on the south to Surat. '! heir capital was Alor and during their rule Sindh was divided into four provinces of Bahmanabad. Siw istan. Chachpur (which comprised the greater part of Bahaw'alpur Division) and the province consisting of Multan and West Punjab. The Rai dynasty governed Sindh for 137 years and met its fate when the king Rai Saliasi II. allowed a Brahman Chaeh to gain influence in his kingdom. On the death of Rai Sahasi II. Chaeh married his widow and estab­lished himself on the throne after killing the rightful heir of 111 e Rai. After a reign of 33 years, Chaeh died and was succeeded by his brother Chandar who after ruling for eight years was succeeded by his nephew Raja Dahir. During Dahir's reign some Arab ships carrying mer­chandise were attacked and plundered by his subjects. Arabs demanded compensation and on refusal bv Raja Dahir. Muhammad Bin Qasim invaded this area in April 712 A.D. and con­quered the whole territory upto Multan. Dahir was killed in the battle at Pawar. The territory remained under the various governors appointed by the Abbassides and the LImmayyids from 712-870 A.D. In 871 A.D. the power of Caliphs declined and the province of Sindh slipped from their control and went under the Baikh dynasty when two principalities. Multan and Mansura (Bahawalpur Division) were founded. In 985 A.D. the Baikh ruler \vas over-thrown by Karamatian (a Persian sect). In 978 A.D. when Subaktagin invaded the sub-continent, he left the territory under the sovereignty ofH'amid Khan Lodhi. who ruled till 1004 A.D. when Ahdul Fateh son ofHamid Khan Lodhi revolted against Ghaznavids and was Jailed by Mahmud Gha/navi. Fourteen years later Mahmud again visited Multan and marched to Somnath pass­ing through Bahawalpur territory and on his way visited Moujgarh Fort (in Bahawalp.ur Tehsil). On his return from the conquest of Somnath. Mahmud placed a Karamatian prince on the throne in this area. The reign of Karamatian was followed by Sumaras and Samas who ruled it for nearly 500 years. In 1578 A.D., the territory was invaded and conquered by the Ghori Sultans of Delhi, who were succeeded by the Mughals.

The exodus of the Abbassides nobles of Egypt to India had already started in the reign of Muhammad Taughlak-Bin-Ghiasuddin. This Tughlak emperor of India recognised the Abbassides Caliph, Abdul Abbas-AI-Hakim in Egypt and accepted his spiritual leader­ship. He even got the name of the caliph inscribed on the Indian coinage of his reign.

In 1366 A.D. Amir Sultan Ahmed II, Abbasi. fiftieth direct descendant from Abdul Qasim Ahmed (the first Abbasside Caliph ruled in Egypt) migrated to India with his family and a few hundred of followers entered into Sindh through Balochistan and settled down in Sindh. Those Arabs who had already settled in Sindh rallied round the Amir. In the course of time the Amir's family gradually moved north-ward losing much of the Sindh territory, but finally settled down at Fort Derawar. which they captured from the ruler of Jaisalmir.

In 1540, Duddees a well-known tribe rose to considerable power in the eastern part of Bahawalpur. In the same period. Amir Channi Khan Abbasi was made Ranjhazari by Prince Murad. the son of emperor Akbar the Great. After the death of Amir Mohammad Channi Khan. quarrels arose between the two sections ofAbbasis. the Kalhora and Daudpota tribes. The Arab tribes settled in Bahawalpur sided with the latter who were destined to create and rule Bahawalpur State. Amir Bahadur Khan Abbasi, the chief of Daudpota then came to power he and his descendants wielded small principalities of Bahawalpur State into a united king­dom. Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan I, Abbasi. who came to power in 1702. was an able commander and leader. Throughout his reign he had to fight many battles against Kalhoras. He abdicated in 1723 A.D., in favour of his son Sadiq Mohammad Khan I. Sadiq Mohammad Khan I (1723-1746) was killed in a battle with Khuda Yar Khan Kalhora. Amir Mohammad Bahawal Khan I, (1 746-1 949) ascended the throne in 1 746. During his short rule, he built the towns of Bahawalpur, Qaimpur, Hasilpur, Tranda Ali Murad Khan, Shahbazpur and Mohammadpur Laman. During his reign three canals namely Khan Wah. Qutab Wah and Wahi Qaidr Dina were dug. As a result the agriculture of the state improved considerably and the people became prosperous. Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan II Abbasi (1 749-1 772) succeeded Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan 1 Abbasi. In 1 750, he captured Marot, Jaisalmir and Madwala and its dependencies west of the Sutlej and Panjnad, now part of Muzaffargarh district from Nahrs. Bet Doma territory which belonged to Makhdum Sheikh Raju of Sitpur was also con­quered. Later a part of the country including the important towns of Dunyapur and Kahror were occupied. In 1766, the Sikh confederates Jhanda Singh. Ganda Singh and Hari Singh invaded the Amir's trans-Sutlej territories but were repulsed. Pakpattan was fixed as the bound­ary between Bahawalpur and the Sikh State. Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan II Abbasi was an able administrator and a powerful ruler. He took keen interest in building his army. Many of the forts on the border of the state were built during his reign. He kept the Sikhs in check. Many canals on which the prosperity of the district depend were constructed during his time.

Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan II, Abbasi succeeded him and ruled from 1772 to 1809 A.D. He assumed the title of Muhammad Bahawal Khan II. In 1777. the Sikh captured Multan. From 1785 to 1788, Amir had to encounter Taimur Shah, the powerful Durrani mon­arch of Kabul. Bahawalpur was plundered by Durranis, the town was burnt and destroyed. The fort of Derawar was also occupied and Taimur Shah garrisoned it with troops under his general Shah Muhammad Khan Badozai, but eventually the Amir drove out the Durranis after fighting many fierce battles. In 1802 Shah Muhammad of Kabul sent a valuable Khilat and title of Mukhlis-ud-Daula. A mint was started at Bahawalpur in 1802. where gold. silver and copper coins were made. The first treaty between Bahawalpur and the British government was affected in 1833 which remained in force till the 14th August, 1947 when the state ac­ceded to Pakistan. After Muhammad Bahawal Khan II. prince Abdullah Khan under the title of Sadiq Muhammad Khan II (1809-1825) was proclaimed Amir of Bahawalpur. The greater part of his reign passed in repelling the attacks of the Amirs of Sindh, in suppressing the rebellions of his own Umaras and protecting his conquered territories.

On the death of Amir Sadiq Mohammad Khan II in 1825 A.D.. Amir Bahawal Khan ill ascended the throne in 1825 at Derawar. He ruled from 1825-1852 A.D. On his accession to the throne Amir sent presents to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. In response Maharaja sent his congratulations and some presents to Amir.

As some dues for the lease of Dera Gha/i Khan had not been paid for several years. Ranjit Singh sent a force under General Ventura to expel the governor appointed there by the Amir of Bahawalpur without giving him any opportunity for parley. General Ventura occupied Dera Ghazi Khan. Muzaffargarh and Multan. and they thus passed from the rule of the state. The Amir was very upset at this loss. Alliances with the neighbouring states Sindh. Bikanir or Jaisalmir were out of question for they were already hostile to Bahawalpur

Ranjit Singh sent a large force under Sham Singh Atariwala to Kahror to invade the state on any pretext. There upon the Amir sent an envoy to the British Governor General at Simla to invoke his intervention. Lord William Bentinck, the then British Governor Gen­eral, accepted the proposal and Ranjit Singh was warned not to cross the Sutlej. In 1833 Nawab negotiated a treaty of friendship arid alliance with the Britishers.

In 1842 Parganas of Kot Sabzal and Ghung Bhara lost by the state in 1807, were conquered by the British from the Mirs of Sindh and resorted to Bahawalpur state by Sr. Charles Napier. In 1 848 the Amir of Bahawalpur assisted the British in the battle of Multan. As a result of Bahawalpur British alliance Multan fell and was made part of the British Indian territory

On the death of Amir Bahawal Khan 111. Sadiq Mohammad Khan III, (1852-1853) was crowned as Amir. On assuming rulership he confined prince Haji Khan and his brothers and treated them harshly. A large number of Bahawalpur army was demobilised. All the grants, rights and claims of Daudpotas and other usual expenses were diminished and abolished. These events made the Amir unpopular. On the 29th of Rabi-ul-Sani, 1269 A.H, Fateh Garh Fort was attacked at night. Prince Haji Khan, who was kept as prisoner, was freed and brought to Khanpur. Haji Khan entered Ahmedpur East without any resistance and Sadiq Muhammad Khan III was imprisoned. Prince Haji Khan who assumed the title of Fateh Khan ruled the state from I 853 to I 858 A.D. Prince Rahim Yar Khan succeeded his father, the late Amir Fateh Khan Abbasi, as Muhammad Bahawal Khan IV (I 858-1 866). He was poisoned and died on the 25th March. I 866. On the death of Amir Bahawal Khan IV, Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV was crowned when he was four and half year old. He was installed in I 879. when he attained maturity. In the interim period from I 866 to I 879. the state was supervised by Brit­ish Officers. Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan V, the next successor was about I 6 years of age at the time of his father's death in 1907. Amir Sadiq Mohammad Khan Abbasi V (I 907-1955), was proclaimed Amir ofBahawalpur on the death of his father in 1907. He was then a child of three years old. He ruled the state till 1955 when it was integrated in the Punjab province of Pakistan

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