History in Khan Pur

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Mazhar Sheikh

 History

When Alexander gained victory over Multan, he appointed General Philipos to rule Multan and Uch and advanced himself towards Alor. The country remained under Philops, who was afterwards driven out by Poros after the death of Aleander. This part of the country is also said to have been a part of the Buddhist Empire of Ashoka. Authenticated history of the district begins by about 493 A.D. when Raja dynasty of Rai dynasty came to the throne. In the Rai dynasty dominions were vast, extending from Kashmir and Kanauj to Kandhar and Seistan and on the west to Mekran and a part of Debal, while on the south to Surat. Their capital was Alor and during their rule Sindh was divided into four provinces of Bahmanabad, Siwistan, Chachpur and the province consisting of Multan and west Punjab. The Rai dynasty governed Sindh for 137 years and met its fate when the king Rai Sahasi 11, allowed a Brahman Chach to gain influence in his kingdom. On the death of Rai Sahasi 11, Chach married his widow and established himself on the throne after killing the rightful heir of the Rai. After a reign of 33 years, Chach died and was succeeded by his brother Chandar who after ruling for eight years was succeeded by his nephew Raja Dahir. During Dahir's reign some Arab carrying ships carrying merchandise were attacked and plundered by his subjects. Arsabs demanded compensation and on refusalby Raja Dahir, Muhammad Bin Qasim invaded this area in April 712 A.D and conquered the whole territory upto Multan. Dahir was killed in the battle at Pawar. The territory remained under the various governors appointed by the Abbbasidexzs and the Ummayids from 712-870 A.D. In 871 A.D the powers of Caliphs declined and thew province of Sindh slipped from their control and went under the Balkh dynesty when two participalities, Multan and Mansura ( Bahawalpur  Division ) werew founded. In 985 A.D,the Balkh ruler was over thrown by Karamatian  ( a persian sect. ). In 978 A.D, when Subak Tagin invaded the subcontinent, he left the territory under the sovereignty of Hamid Khan Lodhi, who ruled till 1004 A.D. When Abdul Fateh, son of Hamid Khan Lodhi, revolted against Ghaznavids and was jailed by Mahmud Ghaznavi. Fourteen years later, Mahmud again visited Multan and marched to Somnathpassing through Bahawalpur territory and on his way visited Moujgarh Fort (in Bahawalpur Tehsil ) On his rewturn from the conquest of Somnath. Mahmud placed a Karamatian prince on the throne in theis area. The reign of Karamatian was followed by Sumaras and Samas; who ruled it for nearly 500 years. In the 1578 A.D the territory was invaded and conquered by the Ghori Sultans of Delhi, who were succeeded by the Mughals.

The exodus of the Abbasides nobles of Egypt to India had already started in the reign of Muhammad Taughlak_bin_Ghiasuddin. This Taughlak emperor of India recognised the Abbassides Caliph, Abdul Abbas_Al_Hakim in Egypt and eccepted his spiritual leader shiop. He even got the name of the caliph inscribed on the Indian coinage of his reign.

 In 1366 A.D Amir Sultan Ahmed 11, Abbasi, fiftieth direct descendant from Abdul Qasim Ahmed (the first Abbasid Caliph ruled in Egypt ) migrated to India with his family and a few hundred of followers entered into South through Balochistan and settled down in Sindh. Those Arabs who had already settled in Sindh rallied round the Amir. In the course of time the Amir"s fami;ly gradually moved north-ward losing much of the ruler of Jaisdalmir.

In 1540, Duddees,a well known trib,e rose to considerable power in the eastern part of Bahawalpur.  In the same period , Amir Channi Khan Abbassi was made Ranjhazari by Prince Murad ( the son of emperor Akbar Khan the Great) . After the death of Amior Mohammad Channi Khan, quarrels arose between the two sections of Abbasis, the Kalhora and Daudpota tribes. The Arab tribes settled in Bahawalpur, sided with the latter who were destined to create and rule Bahawalpur state. Amir Bahadur Khan Abbasi, the chief of Daupota then came to power he and his descendants wielded small principalities in Bahawalpur state into a united kingdom.

Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan 1,Abbasi who came to the power in 1702, was an able commander and leader. Throughout his reign he had to fight many battles against Kalhoras. He abdicated in 1723 A.D in favor of his son, Sadiq Mohammad Khan 1, who was killed in battle with Khuda Yar Kalhora.   Amir Mohammad Bahawalpur Khan 1, (1746-1949) ascended the throne in 1746. During his short rule, he built the towns of Bahawalpur, Qaimpur, Hasilpur, Tranda Ali Murad Khan, Shabazpur and Mohammadpur Lamman. During his reign three canals namely Khan Wah, Qutab Wah and Wahi Qaider Dina were dug. As a result the agriculture of the state improved considerably and the people became prosperous. Amir Muhammad Mubarik Khan 11 Abbasi ( 1749-1772 ) succeeded Amir Muhammed  Bahawal Khan 1 Abbasi. In 1750, he captured Marot, Jaissalmor and Madwala and its dependencies west of the Sutlej and Panjnad, now part of Muzaffargarh district from Nahrs. Bet Doma territory which belonged to Makhdum Sheikh Raju of Sitpur was also conquered. Later a part of the country including the important towns of Dunyapur and Kahrorwere occupied. In 1776, the Sikhs confederates jhanda singh, Ganda Singh and Hari singh invaded the Amir"s trans-sutlej territories but were repulsed. Pakpattan was fixed as the boundary between Bahawalpur and the Sikh state. Amir Mohammad Mubarik Khan 11 Abbasi was an able administrator and a powerful ruler. He took keen interest in builkding his army. Many of the forts on the border of the state were built during his reign. He kept the Sikhs in check. Many canals on which the prosperity of the district depended were constructed during his time.

Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan II, Abbasi succeeded him and ruled from 1772 to 1809 A.D He assumed the title of Muhammad Bahawal Khan II. In 1777, the Sikh captured Multan.From 1785 to 1788, Amir had to encounter Taimur Shah, the powerful Durrani monarch of Kabul.Bahawalpur was plundered by Durranis, the town was burnt and destroyed.

The Fort Derawar was also occupied and Taimur Shah garrisoned it with troops under his general Shah Muhammad Khan Badozai, but eventually the Amir drove out the Durranis after fighting many fierce battles. In 1802 Shah Muhammad of Kabul sent a valueable Khilat and title of Mukhlis-ud-daudla. A mint was started at Bahawalpur in 1802, where gold, silver and copper coins were made. The first treaty between Bahawalpur and the British government was affected in 1883, which remained in force till the August14th, 1947 when the state acceded to Pakistan. After Muhammad Bahawal Khan 11, prince Abdullah Khan under the title of Sadiq Muhammad Khan II ( 1809-1825 ) was proclaimed Amir of Bsahawalpur .

The greater part of his reign passed in repelling the attacks of the Amirs of Sindh, in suppressing the rebellions of his own Umaras and protecting his conquered territories.

On the death of Amir Sadiq Mohammad Khan II in 1825 A.D, Amir Bahawal Khsan III ascended the throne in 1825 at Derawar. He ruled from 1825-1852 A.D. On his accession to the throne Amir sent presents to Maharaja sent his congratulations and some presents to Amir.

As some dues for the lease of Dera Ghazi Khan had not been paid for several years, Ranjit Singh sent for  a force under General Venture to expel the governor appointed there by the Amir of Bahawalpur without giving him any oppurtunity for parley. General Ventura occupied Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh and Multan, and they thus passed from the rule of the state. The Amir was very upset at this loss. Alliance with neighbouring states Sindh, Bikanir or Jaisalmir were out of question for they were already hostile to Bahawalpur.

Ranjit Singh sent a large force under Sham Singh Atariwala to Kahoror to invade the state on any pretext. There upon the Amir sent an envoy to the British Governor Generalat Simla to invoke his intervention. Lord William Bentinck, the British Governor General, accepted the proposal and Ranjit Singh was warned not to cross the Sutlej. In 1833 Nawab negotiated a treaty of friendship and alliance with the British.

In 1842 Parganas of Kot Sabzal and Ghung Bhara lost by the state in 1807, were conquered by the British from the Mirs of Sindh resorted to Bahawalpur state by Sr.Charles Napier. In 1848 the Amir of Bahawalpur assisted the British in the battle of Multan. As a result of Bahawalpur British alliance Multan fell and was made part of the British Indian territory.

On the death of Amir Bahawal Khan III, Sadiq Mohammad Khan III, (1852-1853 ) was crowned as Amir. On assuming rule, he confined prince Haji Khan and his brothers and treated them harshly. A large number of the Bahawalpur army was demobilized. All the grants, rights and claims of Daudpotas and other usual expenses were diminished and abolished. These events made the Amir unpopular. On the 29th of Rabi-ul-Sani, 1269 A.H, Fateh Garh Fort was attacked at night. Prince Haji Khan who was kept as prisner, was freed and brought to Khanpur.. Prince Haji Khan, who was kept as a prisnor, was freed and brought to Khanpur. Haji Khan entered Ahmedpur East without any resistance and Sadiq Muhammad Khan 111 was imprisoned. Prince Rahim nYar Khan succeeded his father, the late Amir Fateh Khan Abbasi, as Muhammmad Bahawal Khan IV ( 1858-1866 ). He was poisoned and died on the 25th March. 1866. On the death of Bahawal Khan IV, Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV was crowned when he was four and half years old. He was installed in 1879, when he attained maturity. In the interim period from 1866 to 1879, British Officers supervised the state. Amir Muhammad Bahawal Khan V, the next successor was about 16 years of age at the time of his father's death in 1907. He was then a child of three years old. He ruled the state till 1955 when it was integrated in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

 

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