pakka qila museum
Hyderabad Sindh is a city of Hillocks. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768. The Hyderabad city was then named Neroon Kot نيرون ڪوٽ it was a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus and was called the heart of the Mehran . Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhora loved the city so much that in 1768, he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort since then is called the Pacco Qillo پڪو قلعو or the Strong fort .
After the death of the great Kalhoro, started the Talpur Rule. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their kingdom. The four were called Char Yar , Sindhi for Four friends .
The Talpur rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 th February, 1843. It is said that even in rigor mortis the Ameers ( Mirs - leaders) held their swords high fighting the British. The battle ended on 24 th March where the Mirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British.
The British demolished most of the buildings around to accommodate their troops and their military stores. Hyderabad lost its glory. No longer were the roads covered with perfume. In 1857, when the First War of Indian Independence raged across the sub-continent, the British held most of their regiments and ammunition in this city.
Prior to 1947, Hyderabad had a large community of Sindhi Hindus who were largely pre-occupied with trade and commerce. They were responsible for export of products made in Sindh and contributed significantly to the economy of Sindh. Prior to the Partition, 25 per cent of Sindh’s population was Hindu. When Partition of India occurred Sindhi Hindus expected to remain in Sindh. Generally, there was good relation between Hindu Sindhis and Muslims Sindhis. When large waves of Mohajirs started to pour into Hyderabad, violence erupted on the streets. The Hindu Sindhis were forced to flee leaving everything behind. Popati Hirandani who was a Hyderabad resident tells in her autobiography that the Police were merely onlookers when violence erupted and they did not protect the Hindus community. Popati Hiranandani was a writer born 1924 in Hyderabad, Sind  . Many Hindu Sindhis wanted to return to their native Sindh when the violence settled down, but this was not possible.
The Mohajirs were given land mostly in the town of Hirabad. While the population of the people grew with the migration in progress, the Government proposed the creation of two more towns, namely Latifabad and Qasimabad.
The 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots erupted in the city between the two ethnic diversities in majority, the Sindhis and the Mohajirs . Bloodshed and murder reached extremes. The Sindhis retreated to settlements in Qasimabad and the Mohajirs settled down in Latifabad but the city has never been the same again, forever divided by ethnicity.
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