History in SyriaEdit This
Archaeologists have demonstrated that Syria was the center of one of the most ancient civilizations on earth. Around the excavated city of Ebla in northern Syria discovered in 1975 a great Semitic empire spread from the Red Sea north to Turkey and east to Mesopotamia from 2500 to 2400 B.C. The city of Ebla alone during that time had a population estimated at 260 000. Scholars believe the language of Ebla to be the oldest Semitic language.
Syria was occupied successively by Canaanites Phoenicians Hebrews Arameans Assyrians Babylonians Persians Greeks Romans Nabataeans Byzantines and in part Crusaders before finally coming under the control of the Ottoman Turks. Syria is significant in the history of Christianity; Paul was converted on the road to Damascus and established the first organized Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria from which he left on many of his missionary journeys.
Damascus settled about 2500 B.C. is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It came under Muslim rule in A.D. 636. Immediately thereafter the city's power and prestige reached its peak and it became the capital of the Omayyad Empire which extended from Spain to India from A.D. 661 to A.D. 750 when the Abbasid caliphate was established at Baghdad Iraq.
Damascus became a provincial capital of the Mameluke Empire around 1260. It was largely destroyed in 1400 by Tamerlane the Mongol conqueror who removed many of its craftsmen to Samarkand. Rebuilt it continued to serve as a capital until 1516. In 1517 it fell under Ottoman rule.
The Ottomans remained for the next 400 years except for a brief occupation by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt from 1832 to 1840.
In 1920 an independent Arab Kingdom of Syria was established under King Faysal of the Hashemite family who later became King of Iraq. However his rule over Syria ended after only a few months following the clash between his Syrian Arab forces and regular French forces at the battle of Maysalun. French troops occupied Syria later that year after the League of Nations put Syria under French mandate.
With the fall of France in 1940 Syria came under the control of the Vichy Government until the British and Free French occupied the country in July 1941. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalist groups forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946 leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate.
Independence to 1970
Although rapid economic development followed the declaration of independence of April 17 1946 Syrian politics from independence through the late 1960s was marked by upheaval. A series of military coups begun in 1949 undermined civilian rule and led to army colonel Adib Shishakli's seizure of power in 1951. After the overthrow of President Shishakli in a 1954 coup continued political maneuvering supported by competing factions in the military eventually brought Arab nationalist and socialist elements to power.
Syria's political instability during the years after the 1954 coup the parallelism of Syrian and Egyptian policies and the appeal of Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser's leadership in the wake of the 1956 Suez crisis created support in Syria for union with Egypt. On February 1 1958 the two countries merged to create the United Arab Republic and all Syrian political parties ceased overt activities.
The union was not a success however. Following a military coup on September 28 1961 Syria seceded reestablishing itself as the Syrian Arab Republic. Instability characterized the next 18 months with various coups culminating on March 8 1963 in the installation by leftist Syrian Army officers of the National Council of the Revolutionary Command (NCRC) a group of military and civilian officials who assumed control of all executive and legislative authority. The takeover was engineered by members of the Arab Socialist Resurrection Party (Ba'ath Party) which had been active in Syria and other Arab countries since the late 1940s. The new cabinet was dominated by Ba'ath members.
The Ba'ath takeover in Syria followed a Ba'ath coup in Iraq the previous month. The new Syrian Government explored the possibility of federation with Egypt and Ba'ath-controlled Iraq. An agreement was concluded in Cairo on April 17 1963 for a referendum on unity to be held in September 1963. However serious disagreements among the parties soon developed and the tripartite federation failed to materialize. Thereafter the Ba'ath regimes in Syria and Iraq began to work for bilateral unity. These plans foundered in November 1963 when the Ba'ath regime in Iraq was overthrown.
In May 1964 President Amin Hafiz of the NCRC promulgated a provisional constitution providing for a National Council of the Revolution (NCR) an appointed legislature composed of representatives of mass organizations (labor peasant and professional unions) a presidential council (in which executive power was vested) and a cabinet.
On February 23 1966 a group of army officers carried out a successful intra-party coup imprisoned President Hafiz dissolved the cabinet and the NCR abrogated the provisional constitution and designated a regionalist civilian Ba'ath Government. The coup leaders described it as a "rectification" of Ba'ath Party principles.
The defeat of the Syrians and Egyptians in the June 1967 war with Israel weakened the radical socialist regime established by the 1966 coup. Conflict developed between a moderate military wing and a more extremist civilian wing of the Ba'ath party. The 1970 retreat of Syrian forces sent to aid the PLO during the "Black September" hostilities with Jordan reflected this political disagreement within the ruling Ba'ath leadership. On November 13 1970 Minister of Defense Hafiz al-Asad effected a bloodless military coup ousting the civilian party leadership and assuming the role of Prime Minister.