Practical Information in Tanzania

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Country Location

Tanzania is located in Eastern Africa between longitude 290 and 410 East. Latitude 10 and 120 South.

Most Northerly point:  Bukoba 10 South Latitude

Most Southerly point: Mtalika 120 South latitude

Most Westerly point:  Kigoma 290 East of Greenwhich

Most easterly point:   Mtwara 410 East of Greenwhich

Tanzania has frontier to the following countries:

North : Kenya and Uganda

West: Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo

South: Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique

East: Indian Ocean

Geographical Features

Tanzania is the biggest of the East Africa countries (i.e. Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania). Has a spectacular landscape of mainly three physiographic regions namely the Islands and the coastal plains to the east; the inland saucer-shaped plateau; and the highlands. The Great Rift Valley that runs from north east of Africa through central Tanzania is another landmark that adds to the scenic view of the country. The rift valley runs to south of Tanzania spliting at Lake Nyasa; one branch runs down beyond Lake Nyasa to Mozambique; and another branch to north-west alongside Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and western part of Uganda. The valley is dotted with unique lakes which includes Lakes Rukwa, Tanganyika, Nyasa, Kitangiri, Eyasi and Manyara. The uplands includes the famous Kipengere, Udzungwa, Matogoro, Livingstone, and the Fipa plateau forming the southern highlands. The Usambara, Pare, Meru, Kilimanjaro, the Ngorongoro Crater and the Oldonyo Lengai, all form the northern highlands. From these highlands and the central saucer plateau flow the drainage system to the Indian ocean, Atlantic ocean, Mediterranean sea and the inland drainage system.

Mountain Summits:

(metres above sea level)

Mount Kilimanjaro


Mount Meru


Mount Rungwe


Uluguru Mountains


Rubeho Mountains


Livingstone Mountains


Mbizi Mountain


Mahari Mountain


Usambara Mountains



Tanzania has a tropical type of climate. In the highlands, temperatures range between 100c and 200c.during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures never falling lower than 200c. The hottest period spreads between November and February (250c - 310c) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (150c - 200c).

Two rainfall regimes exist over Tanzania. One is unimodal (December - April) and the other is bimodal (October -December and March - May). The former is experienced in southern, south-west, central and western parts of the country, and the later is found to the north and northern coast.

In the bimodal regime the March - May rains are referred to as the long rains or Masika, whereas the October - December rains are generally known as short rains or Vuli.

Country Profile

Area:                                       Total 945,000 km2  

Mainland:                                881,000km2  

Zanzibar:                                 2,000 km2  

Water:                                     62,000 km2  

Forest and woodlands:           3.350 km2       

Political system:                     Multi party democracy


26 administrative regions (21 mainland and 5 Zanzibar), 130 administrative districts (Zanzibar has 10 and Mainland has 120 administrative districts).


Estimated at 33 million people (2002); 

- about 51% are women; and 

- about 46% are under  age 15.

Poverty:         About 50% of the population are living below the poverty line.  

Per Capital GNP:            Estimated at US $ 246 (2001) (US$1 = T.shs. 800 in 2001)  

Per Capital GDP:            Estimated at US$ 251 (2001) (US$1 = T.shs. 800 in 2001)                                      

Natural Resources:

Minerals - gold, diamonds, tanzanite and various other gemstones, natural gas, iron ore, coal, spring water, phosphates, soda ash and salt.

Wildlife and Tourism - 12 National Parks, the Ngorongoro conservation Area, 13 Game reserves, 38 Game Controlled Areas: National Cultural Heritage Sites (about 120 sites)

Fisheries - three large lakes: Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa, the Indian Ocean coastline, rivers and wetlands. Potential yield of fish from natural waters is estimated to be 730,000 metric tons annually, present catch is 350,000 metric tons.

Forestry and Beekeeping Non-reserved forest-land (1,903.8 km2), forest/woodlands with national parks etc (200 km2), and Gazetted forest reserves (1,251.7 km2).

Currency: Official currency is the Tanzania shilling or 100cents which approximate US$ 0.004.

Tanzania Shilling exchange rate US$ 1 = T.shs. 800 (2001).  

Capital City

With a population of almost 300,000 (1998) Dodoma which is located at a distance of 309 km west of Dar es Salaam, is the country's political capital. Dar es Salaam is the country's commercial capital. Other big urban centres include Arusha; Moshi, Tanga and Mwanza to the north of the country, Morogoro in the east; Mbeya and Iringa, to the west. Tabora and Shinyanga are also important economic hubs in central Tanzania. Mwanza and Dar es Salaam are two cities in Tanzania so far.

National Holidays (2004)



 1 January

New Year

12 January  

Zanzibar Revolution Day   2* February

Idd el Haj (depends on moon sighting) 9 April  Good Friday    12 April   Easter Monday   26 April  Union Day    1 May  Workers Day   2* May    Maulid ( depends on moon sighting)  7 July   International Trade Fair  8 August     Farmers' Day   14 October Mwalimu Nyerere Day and Climax of “uhuru Torch Race” 18* & 19 * October Idd - El Fitr  9 December  Indepedence Day   25 December    Christmas Day 26 December  Boxing Day

National Symbols

The National Flag

Ratio length to breadth: Three to two, e.g. 3ft. x 2ft., 6ft. x 4ft. 12ft. x 8ft. Description: Green - Golden - Black and Blue, having the black center stripe centred on diagonal rising from flag-mast to top edge of the fly, two smaller golden stripes dividing the upper triangle portion which is green and the lower triangle portion which is blue. Proportions of colours: Black center stripe, centred on diagonal of flag of 6ft. x 4ft., is 13/48 of fly and 13" wide.  Golden stripes are each 1/16 of fly and 3" wide. Colour Code and Significance:

                   B.S. No. 2660:  1955

Black:        B.S. No. 9-103 - the People

Green:       B.S. No. 0-010 - the Land

Blue:          B.S. No. 0-012 - the Adjoining Sea

Golden:      B.S. No. 0-002 - the Mineral wealth Uwiano wa Urefu

Kwa Upana:-

Maelezo: Tatu kwa mbili, mfano ft.3 x ft.2, ft.6 x ft.4, ft.12 x ft.8

Ina rangi za Kijani, Dhahabu, Nyeusi na Bluu ambapo rangi nyeusi imepita katikati ya bendera kuanzia pembe ya chini kwenye mlingoti na kuishia  pembe ya juu kulia.  Rangi hii huigawa bendera katika sehemu mbili zenye umbo la pembe tatu.  Rangi nyeusi imetenganishwa na pember tatu ya juu yenye rangi ya kijani na pembe tatu ya chini yenye rangi ya bluu kwa mistari miwili midogo yenye rangi ya dhahabu. Viwango vya rangi na maana zake.  

Nyeusi            -   Kiwango na. 9-103 - Watu

Kijani              -   Kiwango na. 0-010 - Ardhi

Bluu                -  Kiwango  na. 0-012 - Bahari + Maziwa Dhahabu        -   Kiwango na. 0-002 - Madini Uwiano wa Rangi:  

Rangi nyeusi kwa bender ya

Ft.6 x ft.4 ni 13/48 kwenda juu na

Ft.13 upana.  Mistari ya dhahabu ni 1/16 kwenda juu na 3" upana kila mmoja.

The Tanzania National Anthem



1. Mungu Ibariki Afrika

Wabariki viongozi wake

Hekima, umoja na amani

Hizi ni ngao zetu

Afrika na watu wake. 


Ibariki, Afrika

Ibariki, Afrika

Tubaki, watoto wa Afrika

2. Mungu Ibariki Tanzania

Dumisha uhuru na umoja

Wake kwa waume na watoto

Mungu, Ibariki

Tanzania, na watu wake.


Ibariki, Tanzania

Ibariki, Tanzania

Tubariki, watoto wa Tanzania. 



1. God Bless Africa

Bless its leaders

Let Wisdom Unity and

Peace be the shield of

Africa and its people


Bless Africa

Bless Africa

Bless the children of Africa.

2. God Bless Tanzania

Grant eternal Freedom and Unity

To its sons and daughters.

God Bless Tanzania and its People.



Bless Tanzania

Bless Tanzania

Bless the children of Tanzania

The Tanzania National Coat of Arms

The central feature of the Coat of Arms is a Warrior’s Shield which bears a Golden portion on the upper part followed underneath by the United Republic flag of Green, Golden, Black and Blue; and a red portion under which are wavy bands of blue and white.

The Golden portion represents minerals in the United Republic; the red portion underneath the flag symbolizes the red soil of Africa; while the wavy bands represent the land, sea, lakes and coastal lines of the United Republic.

Superimposed features on the Shield are flames of a burning torch which signifies freedom, enlightment and knowledge; a spear signifying defence of freedom and crossed axe and hoe being tools that the people of the United Republic use in developing the country.

The Shield is set upon a representation of Mount Kilimanjaro.  On each side of the Shield there is an elephant tusk supported by a man on the right and a woman on the left.  At the feet of the man is a clove bush and at the feet of the woman is a cotton bush – thus indicating the theme of co-operation.

The United Republic motto – Uhuru na Umoja – is written in Kiswahili and it means ‘Freedom and Unity’.

The Uhuru Tourch

The Uhuru Torch symbolizes freedom and light.  It was first lit on top of mount Kilimanjaro (5,890m) in 1961.  Symbolically to Shine the country and across the borders to bring hope where there is despair, love where there is enemity and respect where there is hatred.  Yearly there is the Uhuru Torch race, starting from different prominent places.

December 24, 2004 new by yonamaro


The local currency is the Tanzania Shiling (TZS)

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