History in Tanzania

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Tanzania

Northern Tanganyika's famed Olduvai Gorge has provided rich evidence of the area's prehistory including fossil remains of some of humanity's earliest ancestors dating two million years back. Discoveries suggest that East Africa may have been the site of human origin.

Tanzania

An early Arab/Persian trading center Zanzibar fell under Portuguese domination in the 16th and early 17th centuries but was retaken by Omani Arabs in the early 18th century. The height of Arab rule came during the reign of Sultan Seyyid Said who encouraged the development of clove plantations using the island's slave labor.

The Arabs established their own garrisons at Zanzibar Pemba and Kilwa and carried on a lucrative trade in slaves and ivory. By 1840 Said had transferred his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar and established a ruling Arab elite. The island's commerce fell increasingly into the hands of traders from the Indian subcontinent who Said encouraged to settle on the island.

Zanzibar's spices attracted ships from as far away as the United States. A U.S. consulate was established on the island in 1837. The United Kingdom's early interest in Zanzibar was motivated by both commerce and the determination to end the slave trade. In 1822 the British signed the first of a series of treaties with Sultan Said to curb this trade but not until 1876 was the sale of slaves finally prohibited.

The Anglo-German agreement of 1890 made Zanzibar and Pemba a British protectorate. British rule through a sultan remained largely uncharged from the late 19th century until after World War II.

Zanzibar's political development began in earnest after 1956 when provision was first made for the election of six non-government members to the Legislative Cou

Northern Tanganyika's famed Olduvai Gorge has provided rich evidence of the area's prehistory including fossil remains of some of humanity's earliest ancestors. Discoveries suggest that East Africa may have been the site of human origin. Zanzibar

An early Arab/Persian trading center Zanzibar fell under Portuguese domination in the 16th and early 17th centuries but was retaken by Omani Arabs in the early 18th century. The height of Arab rule came during the reign of Sultan Seyyid Said who encouraged the development of clove plantations using the island's slave labor.

The Arabs established their own garrisons at Zanzibar Pemba and Kilwa and carried on a lucrative trade in slaves and ivory. By 1840 Said had transferred his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar and established a ruling Arab elite. The island's commerce fell increasingly into the hands of traders from the Indian subcontinent who Said encouraged to settle on the island.

Zanzibar's spices attracted ships from as far away as the United States. A U.S. consulate was established on the island in 1837. The United Kingdom's early interest in Zanzibar was motivated by both commerce and the determination to end the slave trade. In 1822 the British signed the first of a series of treaties with Sultan Said to curb this trade but not until 1876 was the sale of slaves finally prohibited.

ncil. Two parties were formed: the Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP) presenting the dominant Arab and "Arabized" minority and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) led by Abaid Karume and representing the Shirazis and the African majority.

The first elections were held in July 1957 and the ASP won three of the six elected seats with the remainder going to independents. Following the election the ASP split; some of its Shirazi supporters left to form the Zanzibar and Pemba People's Party (ZPPP). The January 1961 election resulted in a deadlock between the ASP and a ZNP-ZPPP coalition.

On April 26 1964 Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar renamed the United Republic of Tanzania on October 29.

United Republic of Tanzania

TANU and the Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar were merged into a single party (Chama cha Mapinduzi--CCM Revolutionary Party) on February 5 1977. On April 26 1977 the union of the two parties was ratified in a new constitution. The merger was reinforced by principles enunciated in the 1982 union constitution and reaffirmed in the constitution of 1984.

The elections that followed the granting of self-government in June 1963 produced similar results. Zanzibar received its independence from the United Kingdom on December 19 1963 as a constitutional monarchy under the sultan. On January 12 1964 the African majority revolted against the sultan and a new government was formed with the ASP leader Abeid Karume as president of Zanzibar and chairman of the Revolutionary Council. Under the terms of its political union with Tanganyika in April 1964 the Zanzibar Government retained considerable local autonomy.

Abeid Karume was named First Vice President of the union government a post he held until his assassination in April 1972. Aboud Jumbe a fellow member of the ASP and the Revolutionary Council was appointed to succeed Karume. In 1981 32 persons were selected to serve in the Zanzibar House of Representatives. The election marked the first poll since the 1964 revolution. In 1984 Jumbe resigned and was replaced by Ali Hassan Mwinyi as both President of Zanzibar and First Vice President of Tanzania. In the election of 1985 Mwinyi was elected President of the United Republic of Tanzania; Idris Wakil was elected President of Zanzibar and Second Vice President of Tanzania. In 1990 Wakil retired and was replaced as President of Zanzaibar by Salmin Amour.

In 1977 Nyerere merged TANU with the Zanzibar ruling party the ASP to form the CCM as the sole ruling party in both parts of the union. The CCM was to be the sole instrument for mobilizing and controlling the population in all significant political or economic activities. He envisioned the party as a "two-way street" for the flow of ideas and policy directives between the village level and the government.

President Nyerere handed over power to his successor President Ali Hassan Mwinyi in 1985 Nyerere retained his position as Chairman of the ruling party for five more years but in 1990 this post also was passed on to Mwinyi who started his last five-year terms at that time. Nyerere retired from formal politics but remains influential behind the scenes.

In 1990 in response to the currents of democracy sweeping much of the world Tanzania began making substantial changes to its political system of a down.

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