History in Somalia

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Sultan Mohamud Ali Shire in 1905

Sultan Mohamud Ali Shire in 1905

Rechard.F.Burton

Early history traces the development of the Somali people to an Arab sultanate which was founded in the seventh century A.D. by Koreishite immigrants from Yemen. During the 10th and 11th centuries Portuguese traders landed in present Somali territory and ruled several coastal towns. The sultan of Zanzibar subsequently took control of these towns and their surrounding territory.

The Warsangeli Sultante was an imperial power centered around the borders of the North East of British Somaliland and some parts of South East of Italian Somaliland. It was one of the largest Sultanates of all times in Somalia, and, at the height of its power, it included the Sanaag region, parts of North East of Bari region. It was established by a tribe of Warsangeli in North of Somalia and ruled by the descendents of the Gerad Dhidhin.

The Sultan also known as the Gerad, in some parts of Somalia, sometimes the Sultan or Gerad, was the sole regent and government of the Sultanate, at least officially. The dynasty is most often called the Gerad   or the House of  North East Somaliland Sultan. The sultan enjoyed many titles such as Sovereign of the House of North East of Somaliland Sultanate , Sultan of Sultans of Somaliland. Note that the first rulers never called themselves sultan s. The sultan title was established by Sultan Mohamud Ali Shire   in 1897

 

Somalia's modern history began in the late l9th century when various European powers began to trade and establish themselves in the area that thet were located in. The British East  India Company's desire for unrestricted harbor facilities led to the conclusion of treaties with the sultan of Tajura as early as 1840. It was not until 1886 however that the British gained control over northern Somalia through treaties with various Somali chiefs who were guaranteed British protection. British objectives centered on safeguarding trade links to the east and securing local sources of food and provisions. The boundary between Ethiopia and British Somaliland was established in 1897 through treaty negotiations between British negotiators and King Menelik.

During the first two decades of this century British rule was challenged through persistent attacks led by the Islamic nationalist leader Mohamed Abdullah. A long series of intermittent engagements and truces ended in 1920 when British warplanes bombed Abdullah's stronghold at Taleex. Although Abdullah was defeated as much by rival Somali factions as by British forces he was lauded as a popular hero and stands as a major figure of Somali national identity.

In 1885 Italy obtained commercial advantages in the area from the sultan of Zanzibar and in 1889 concluded agreements with the sultans of Obbia and Caluula who placed their territories under Italy's protection. Between 1897 and 1908 Italy made agreements with the Ethiopians and the British that marked out the boundaries of Italian Somaliland. The Italian Government assumed direct administration giving the territory colonial status.

Italian occupation gradually extended inland. In 1924 the Jubaland Province of Kenya including the town and port of Kismayo was ceded to Italy by the United Kingdom. The subjugation and occupation of the independent sultanates of Obbia and Mijertein begun in 1925 were completed in 1927. In the late 1920s Italian and Somali influence expanded into the Ogaden region of eastern Ethiopia. Continuing incursions climaxed in 1935 when Italian forces launched an offensive that led to the capture of Addis Ababa and the Italian annexation of Ethiopia in 1936.

Following Italy's declaration of war on the United Kingdom in June 1940 Italian troops overran British Somaliland and drove out the British garrison. In 1941 British forces began operations against the Italian East African Empire and quickly brought the greater part of the Italian Somaliland under British control. From 1941 to 1950 while Somalia was under British military administration transition toward self-government was begun through the establishment of local courts planning committees and the Protectorate Advisory Council. In 1948 Britain turned the Ogaden and neighboring Somali territories over to Ethiopia.

In Article 23 of the 1947 peace treaty Italy renounced all rights and titles to Italian Somaliland. In accordance with treaty stipulations on September 15 1948 the Four Powers referred the question of disposal of former Italian colonies to the UN General Assembly. On November 21 1949 the General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending that Italian Somaliland be placed under an international trusteeship system for 10 years with Italy as the administering authority followed by independence for Italian Somaliland. In 1959 at the request of the Somali Government the UN General Assembly advanced the date of independence from December 2 to July 1 1960.

Meanwhile rapid progress toward self-government was being made in British Somaliland. Elections for the Legislative Assembly were held in February 1960 and one of the first acts of the new legislature was to request that the United Kingdom grant the area independence so that it could be united with Italian Somaliland when the latter became independent. The protectorate became independent on June 26 1960; 5 days later on July 1 it joined Italian Somaliland to form the Somali Republic.

In June 1961 Somalia adopted its first national constitution in a countrywide referendum which provided for a democratic state with a parliamentary form of government based on European models. During the early post-independence period political parties reflected clan loyalties and brought a basic split between the regional interests of the former British-controlled north and the Italian-controlled south. There also was substantial conflict between pro-Arab pan-Somali militants intent on national unification with the Somali-inhabited territories in Ethiopia and Kenya and the "modernists " who wished to give priority to economic and social development and improving relations with other African countries. Gradually the Somali Youth League formed under British auspices in 1943 assumed a dominant position and succeeded in cutting across regional and clan loyalties. Under the leadership of Mohamed Ibrahim Egal prime minister from 1967 to 1969 Somalia greatly improved its relations with Kenya and Ethiopia. The process of party-based constitutional democracy came to an abrupt end however on October 21 1969 when the army and police led by Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad seized power in a bloodless coup.

Following the coup executive and legislative power was vested in the 20-member Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) headed by Maj. Gen. Siad as president. The SRC pursued a course of "scientific socialism" that reflected both ideological and economic dependence on the Soviet Union. The government instituted a national security service centralized control over information and initiated a number of grassroots development projects. Perhaps the most impressive success was a crash program that introduced an orthography for the Somali language and brought literacy to a large percentage of the population.

 

The SRC became increasingly radical in foreign affairs and in 1974 Somalia and the Soviet Union concluded a treaty of friendship and cooperation. As early as 1972 tensions began increasing along the Somali-Ethiopian border. In the mid-1970s the Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF) began guerrilla operations in the Somali region, recently known as (Kilil Five) of Ethiopia. Fighting increased and in July 1977 the Somali National Army (SNA) crossed into Kilil Five (Somali State of Ethiopia) to support the insurgents. The SNA moved quickly toward Harer, Jijiga and Dire Dawa the principal cities of the region. Subsequently the Soviet Union, Somalia's most important source of arms embargoed weapons shipments to Somalia. The Soviets switched their full support to Ethiopia with massive infusions of Soviet arms and 10 000-15 000 Cuban troops. In November 1977 President Siad Barre expelled all Soviet advisers and abrogated the friendship agreement with the U.S.S.R. On March 1978 Somali forces were terribly beaten by the Ruso-Cuban backed Ethiopians and were forced to retreat back into Somalia; however the WSLF continues to carry out sporadic but greatly reduced guerrilla activity in the Ogaden.

Following the 1977 Ethio-Somali war,  President Siad looked to the West for international support military equipment and economic aid. The United States and other Western countries traditionally were reluctant to provide arms because of the Somali Government's support for insurgencies in Ethiopia. In 1978 the United States reopened the U.S. Agency for International Development mission in Somalia. Two years later an agreement was concluded that gave U.S. forces access to military facilities in Somalia. In the summer of 1982 Ethiopian forces invaded Somalia along the central border and the United States provided two emergency airlifts to help Somalia defend its territorial integrity.

From 1982 to 1990 the United States viewed Somalia as a partner in defense. Somali officers of the National Armed Forces were trained in U.S. military schools in civilian as well as military subjects. Within Somalia Siad Barre's regime became increasingly a victim of insurgencies in the northeast and northwest whose aim was to overthrow his government. By 1988 Siad Barre was openly at war with sectors of his nation. At the President's order aircraft from the Somali National Air Force bombed the cities in the northwest province attacking civilian’s indiscriminately as well as insurgent targets. Some cities in the north mainly, Hargeisa were carpet bombed and razed to rubble. The warfare in the north sped up the decay already evident elsewhere in the republic. Economic crisis brought on by the cast of the anti-insurgency caused further hardship as Siad Barre and his cronies looted the national treasury.

By 1990 little remained of the Somali Republic. The insurgency in the northwest was largely successful. The army dissolved into competing armed groups loyal to former commanders or to clan-tribal leaders. The economy was in shambles and hundreds of thousands of Somalis fled their homes. In 1991 Siad Barre and forces loyal to him fled the capital; he died in exile in Nigeria. In 1992 responding to the political chaos and death in Somalia the United States and other nations launched Operation Restore Hope. Led by the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) the operation was designed to create an environment in which assistance could be delivered to Somalis suffering from the effects of dual catastrophes--one man-made and one natural. UNITAF was followed by the United Nations Operation in Somalia. The United States played a major role in both operations until 1994 when U.S. forces withdrew after a pitched gun battle with Somali gunmen that left hundreds dead or wounded.

 

 

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